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火把節節日風俗有哪些?有什么節日禁忌

類別:傳統文化 | 來自:網絡整理 | 發布時間:2018-09-17 | 人氣值:

  火把節是彝族、白族、納西族、拉祜族、哈尼族等民族特有的古老而重要的傳統節日,以彝族火把節最為著名,自漢唐起,已沿襲一千多年。火把節有著深厚的民俗文化內涵,蜚聲海內外。不同的民族舉行火把節的時間也不同,一般是在每年農歷六月二十四舉行,節期三天。節日期間,少數民族同胞競相穿上節日的盛裝,載歌載舞,舉辦聲勢浩大的選美活動和服飾、賽馬、摔跤、射箭、斗羊、斗雞等比賽,并在夜晚點燃火把在曠野中游行、狂歡、紀念祖先,為來年祈福。2006年彝族火把節(四川涼山、云南楚雄)被列入中國第一批國家級非物質文化遺產名錄。

  

  時間:彝族、納西族在農歷六月二十四舉行,白族在六月二十五舉行,拉祜族在六月二十舉行。節期三天。

  

  主要流行地區:四川、云南等地。

  

  主要參與人群:彝族、白族、納西族、拉祜族、哈尼族等。

  

  節日風俗

  

  對彝族而言,火把節相當于漢族的春節,是所有節日中最熱鬧、最重要的節日。在整個節日的過程中,所有的彝族家庭都不做飯,只吃肉、喝酒。節日慶典歷時三天。

  

  第一天是祭火的日子,人們穿上節日的盛裝,小伙子、姑娘們的都打扮得特別漂亮,村村寨寨宰牛殺羊,必備的食品有咂咂酒、坨坨肉、蕎面饃等。夜幕降臨時,人們搭好祭臺,以傳統方式擊石取火,接著的誦經祭火儀式由畢摩(彝族民間祭司)主持進行。然后,大人小孩從畢摩手里接過火把,這些火把或用蒿草扎成,或用松木制成。成群結隊的火把游走于田邊地頭,仿佛傳說中以火驅蟲的英雄又回到了人間。人們一邊走,一邊把松香撒向火把,以示祛邪和祈福。

  

  第二天是傳火的日子,這一天,人們聚集在祭臺圣火下,舉行五花八門的節日活動——賽馬、摔跤、唱歌、斗牛、斗羊、斗雞等。這些競技活動,與節日傳說中英雄與天神的摔跤、角力、燒火、除蟲等內容有一定關系,成為一種象征符號。在眾多競技比賽中,斗羊的競賽最引人注目,被選中的羊高大、健壯,在上場前,須剪去前半身的羊毛,看起來更加精神抖擻。選美也是這個節日的重要活動。姑娘們撐起黃油傘,掩映著美麗的衣裳,唱起《朵洛荷》(當地民歌),由長老從中選出“冠軍”。夜幕降臨,山間溪畔響起月琴和口弦那悅耳的聲音,相戀的青年男女,偎依著互訴衷腸。因此,有人將火把節稱為東方情人節。

  

  第三天是送火的日子,整個火把節進入高潮。夜幕降臨時,人們手持火把成群結隊地游走,最后將手中的火把聚在一起,形成一堆堆巨大的篝火,熊熊火焰象征著來年紅紅火火的生活。在篝火晚會上,人們盡情地唱歌跳舞,徹夜狂歡,不知東方之既白。

  

  節日禁忌

  

  彝族的聚居地多在深山里,人們時常遭受山間毒蟲、兇猛動物的騷擾侵害,火把的寓意為趨吉避兇,故持者應盡量使火把不要熄滅。

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