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細說中國文化史上的“名馬”

類別:傳統常識 | 來自:網絡整理 | 發布時間:2018-09-24 | 人氣值:

  兵馬俑:大秦帝國的鐵蹄。兵馬俑是古代墓葬雕塑的一個類別。兵馬俑即制成兵馬形狀的殉葬品。位于今西安市臨潼區,是秦始皇陵的一部分陪葬坑。1987年,被列入世界文化遺產的保護名錄。先后有200多位國家元首參觀訪問,成為中國古代輝煌文明的一張金字名片。秦始皇兵馬俑是世界考古史上最偉大的發現之一,被譽為“世界第八大奇跡”,“到中國不看秦始皇兵馬俑,就不算真到中國!”這是當今來中國旅游的外國游客和國際友人發出的肺腑之言。

  

  大夏石馬:匈奴人融合的產物。公元417年,匈奴人赫連勃勃攻克長安城,命其子長子赫連璝(guī)鎮守長安。這匹馬原本立于長安縣查家寨赫連璝的墓旁,后來被遷到碑林博物館收藏。從漢武帝對匈奴連續用兵開始,打通了絲綢之路也加速了兩個民族的融合。公元前54年王昭君出塞,嫁給了呼韓邪單于。公元304年,自稱是王昭君后代的匈奴人劉淵,模仿漢族的制度,在長安建立漢國,后改國號為趙(史稱前趙)。而這匹石馬主人的父親,甚至放棄了本民族游牧的傳統,在今天的陜西靖邊縣修筑起了一座恢弘壯麗的城池。

  

  馬踏匈奴:帝國榮光氣吞萬里。提到絲綢之路,就不能不提匈奴人。這個民族曾經是絲綢之路上最大的絆腳石,張騫出使西域最初的目的也是為了聯合大月氏共同抗擊匈奴,雖然任務沒有完成,卻開通了一條通往西方世界的道路。當然如果沒有霍去病,這條道路也是不可能開辟成功的。公元前121年,年僅19歲的霍去病領軍出征,奔襲千里,從匈奴人手中奪下了河西走廊,也標志著絲綢之路正式開通。霍去病不到24歲便英年早逝,漢武帝用“發屬國玄甲,軍陣自長安至茂陵”這樣的陣勢,來表達自己的哀思。他的墓冢被修成了祁連山的樣子,馬踏匈奴”的石刻也被擺放在他的墓前,來紀念他的赫赫戰功。馬踏匈奴長190厘米,高168厘米,表現一匹昂首屹立的戰馬,四足下踏著一名手持弓箭的匈奴首領,用以象征西漢政權的聲威和霍去病的戰功。這件雕刻造型簡潔,風格粗獷,是西漢時代雕刻藝術的巔峰之作。

  

  馬踏飛燕:順拐馬的身世之謎。東漢,武威市雷臺漢墓出土,通高34.5厘米,長45厘米,寬13.1厘米,重7.3千克。造型矯健精美,作昂首嘶鳴、疾足奔馳狀。塑造者攝取了奔馬三組騰空、一足超越飛鳥的剎那瞬間。讓飛鳥回首驚顧,更增強奔馬疾速向前的動勢。其全身的著力點集注于超越飛鳥的一足上,精確地掌握了力學平衡原理,具有卓越的工藝技術水平。銅奔馬是按照良馬式的標準去塑造的,集西域馬和蒙古馬種的優點于一身,特別是表現出河西走馬秉賦的對側步特征。構思巧妙,藝術造型精煉,鑄銅工藝卓越。銅奔馬被認為是東、西方文化交往的使者和象征,被確定為中國旅游的標志。

  

  昭陵六駿:馬上天子的親密戰友。昭陵六駿是指陜西醴泉唐太宗李世民陵墓昭陵北面祭壇東西兩側的六塊駿馬青石浮雕石刻。每塊石刻寬約2米、高約1.7米。昭陵六駿造型優美,雕刻線條流暢,刀工精細、圓潤,是珍貴的古代石刻藝術珍品。六駿是李世民在唐朝建立前先后騎過的戰馬,分別名為“拳毛騧”、“什伐赤”、“白蹄烏”、“特勒驃”、“青騅”、“颯露紫”。為紀念這六匹戰馬,李世民令工藝家閻立德和畫家閻立本,用浮雕描繪六匹戰馬列置于陵前。

  

  唐三彩馬:埋藏地下的絢爛良駒。三彩三花馬被塑造的頭小、臀圓、腿長,典型良馬造型。所謂三花馬是指馬鬃經精心修剪后形成三縷堞垛狀的鬃毛。用“三花”來裝飾馬,是唐代宮廷和貴族間流行的時尚,也是良馬和等級的體現。唐太宗陵前的“昭陵六駿”,馬鬃都被修飾成三花的樣子。唐代繪畫和雕塑中,三花馬也屢見不鮮。馬鬃剪花的習慣可能是受突厥的影響,突厥馬是唐朝馬的主要來源。突厥和唐王朝關系密切,他們通過貿易、進貢或饋贈等方式,把優良品種的馬連帶馬鬃剪花的習俗都傳入了唐朝。

  

  鎏金舞馬銜杯紋銀壺:帝王藝術家的盛裝舞步夢。首先從外形上看,壺身呈扁圓形,是模仿我國北方游牧民族契丹族使用的皮囊壺制作而成。唐朝初期政權統一,很多少數民族移居中原,其中包括很多契丹族人。而這件文物恰是少數民族文化與中原文化交流和融合的產物。其次,此壺的制作工藝非常獨特。壺蓋帽為捶揲成型的覆式蓮瓣,頂中心鉚有一個銀環,環內套接了一條長14厘米的銀鏈與提梁相連,壺肩部焊接著一端有三朵花瓣的像弓劍形狀的提梁。壺身是先將一整塊銀板捶打出壺的大致形狀,再以模壓的方法在壺腹兩面模出兩匹相互對應奮首鼓尾、銜杯匐拜的舞馬形象,然后再將兩端黏壓焊接,反復打磨致平,幾乎看不出焊接的痕跡。而更為珍貴的還要數壺身上的兩匹祝壽馬,這里面還蘊含著悠久厚重的歷史文化,唐玄宗在位后期越發的驕奢淫逸,縱情于聲色犬馬之中,天寶年間,每逢“千秋節”皇帝的生日都會在興慶宮期的勤政樓前,舉行盛大的宴會,接受文武百官、外國使臣和少數民族首領的朝賀,并以舞馬助興。這時上百匹舞馬披金戴銀,伴隨著《傾杯樂》曲的節拍,躍然起舞,奮首鼓尾,舞姿翩翩。高潮時,舞馬躍上三層高的床板旋轉如飛。而此時領頭的舞馬便會銜起地上盛滿酒的酒杯到玄宗面前祝壽。

  

  韓干:馬背上的盛唐氣象。馬在戰場上是將士們最親密的伙伴.歌頌英雄的詩、文中,往往也贊美他跨下的駿馬。昇平歳月中,馬也是古人們日常生活中不可缺少的好幫手,所以古代社會中人人都愛馬。到了唐朝更因皇帝愛馬,玄宗內殿養馬多至四十萬匹。上行下效,唐代的藝術作品,無論是繪畫、雕刻、塑鑄,以馬為題材的,不但數量多,制作又極精細。韓干就是一位著名的畫馬圣手。此幅畫一牧馬人騎白馬,牽一匹黑駿,并轡而行。生動地表現了駿馬的體態神情,準確、簡煉,真實。牧馬人的形象也威武生動。從畫風來看,牧馬人兩腮胡須,體格高大肥壯,是為胡人相貌;馬匹神駿雄健,屬來自西域之品種。在造形上,黑白二馬健碩豐滿,生動逼真,但在線條的描繪上卻是細致流暢。上有宋徽宗(1082-1135)題字:「韓干真跡,丁亥御筆。」依徽宗之題,本幅作者應是韓干(活動於八世紀中葉),擅畫肖像、人物、鬼神、花竹,尤工畫馬,是唐玄宗(712-756在位)時期的畫馬名家。

  

  李公麟:攝“馬”精魄不死不休。《五馬圖》為李公麟傳世佳作,紙本墨筆,縱29.3厘米,橫225厘米,無名款。圖以白描的手法畫了五匹西域進貢給北宋朝廷的駿馬,各由一名奚官牽引。每匹馬后有宋黃庭堅題字,謂馬之年齡、進貢時間、馬名、收于何廄等,并跋稱為李伯時(公麟)所作。五匹馬各具美名,令人遐想,依次為:鳳頭驄、錦膊驄、好頭赤、照夜白、滿川花,而五位奚官則前三人為西域裝束,后兩人為漢人。

  

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