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明朝戰史上的七大勝仗

類別:歷史戰爭 | 來自:網絡整理 | 發布時間:2014-11-07 | 人氣值:

明朝戰史上的七大勝仗


 

  1、洪武二年常遇春,李文忠攻開平之戰,一舉拔掉元上都,元順帝倉皇逃竄,一年后病逝,此戰后,明朝修筑了開平衛,俯瞰整個北方蒙古草原,之后的幾十年,雖然蒙古人偶有勝仗,但基本都是被明軍追亡逐北。
  
  點評:雖說徐達攻克元大都標志著元朝的滅亡,但是在蒙古人敗退大草原以后,真正導致明蒙雙方攻守易形的則是開平之戰,開平是元朝的上都,也是蒙古草原重要的戰略要地,奪取了開平,也就意味著卡住了蒙古草原的咽喉,與游牧民族作戰,一是要作好打持久戰的準備,二是要要建立強大的騎兵隊伍,三則是要搶占到關鍵的戰略要地,漢武帝反擊匈奴,第一槍就是在河套平原打響,因此才有了后來匈奴的倉皇西逃,唐朝反擊突厥,首戰也是先取定襄,才有了重創突厥的奇功,而宋之敗亡也在于幽云十六州的丟失,使得宋軍痛失戰略要沖地,百年來一直處于強敵的壓迫之下。開平戰役的意義也正在于此,雖然此戰的戰果算不上豐碩,但是戰略意義重大,此戰后,明朝修筑了開平衛,作為繼續進逼蒙古帝國的基地,之后徐達藍玉等人的一連串勝仗,也正是此戰打下的基礎。遺憾的是,自宣德開始,處于削弱藩鎮勢力的目的以及文官統治集團的短視,開平衛最終被廢弛,松散的蒙古部落聯盟得以繼續騷擾長城沿線,以至于釀成了土木的慘案和明朝皇帝被俘虜的恥辱,前人攢錢,后人敗光,不知當年病勢于柳河川的常遇春將軍若泉下有知,當做何感想呢。
  
  2、洪武二十一年藍玉捕魚兒海大捷,滅敵數萬,俘虜七萬多人,北元政權的統治機構被一窩端俘虜到南京來,此戰宣告了北元政權的最后滅亡,從此蒙古高原已不再有如成吉思汗時代統一的政權,之后的二百年里,雖然瓦刺和韃靼在蒙古草原輪流坐莊,卻早已不具備抗衡中原的實力,或依附于明朝,或偶爾騷擾,卻終難再锨起大風浪。
  
  點評:今天某些蒙古國史家對于北元歷史津津樂道,企圖尋找蒙古國合法化的證據,遺憾的是,藍玉將軍的大捷給了他們一記響亮的耳光,北元在捕魚兒海大捷后就已不復存在,如果說之前的明朝滅元以及攻克上都之戰,都沒有真正消滅蒙古的皇族的話,捕魚兒海大捷卻宣告了元朝帝國的最終滅亡。這些作為元朝正統的皇族們一股腦的被押解到了南京,北元的運作體系基本被摧毀。如果說在這之前,蒙古貴族心中或許還有所謂反明復元的希望,那么捕魚兒海戰役后,希望就徹徹底底地破滅了。從此,逐鹿中原只能成為他們可望而不可及的美夢。此戰的意義在于蒙古草原被分崩離析成了若干松散的部落,時合時分,相互征戰不休卻難以對中原政權造成致命的軍事威脅。而幾大蒙古部落也先后向明朝稱臣并接受了冊封,無論是從現代的國家觀念看還是從封建時代的國家關系來看,從這一仗開始,所謂的北元與明朝的對峙已經不復存在,蒙古部落與明朝的關系,漸漸的由國與國的關系變成了地方諸侯勢力與中央政府的關系,后來的史實也證明了這一點,無論是瓦刺的也先也好,還是韃靼的俺答也好,他們與明朝邊鎮戰爭的目的僅僅是為了得到一個冊封的爵祿,金庸老先生在《鹿鼎記》中尊清貶明,大談滿清給中國帶來了多少領土云云,對比史實,不禁令人啞然失笑。優秀的小說家未必是優秀的歷史學家,明朝應該反思的是,為什么這樣強勢的軍事勢頭卻不能保持持久,明朝前期,面對統一的北元政權,明軍鐵騎追王逐北,打了一連串的勝仗,卻為什么不能守住固有的勝利果實,在蒙古已被打成若干松散部落,力量嚴重削弱的情形下,卻沒有進一步向蒙古高原滲透勢力,卻是因噎廢食,實行退守自保的戰略,明朝之敗亡,戰略上的短視難辭其咎。
  
  3、永樂八年,明成祖第一次北征,在斡難河戰役中大破韃靼軍主力,蒙古各部紛紛向明朝稱臣,此戰進一步削弱了蒙古各部落的實力,并瓦解了蒙古部落的內部。戰后明朝以勢力均衡的原則對蒙古的幾個主要部落進行冊封,明朝在北方的武功達到了極盛時期。
  
  點評:從戰略上說,明成祖的指揮只能用兩個字來概括--穩進。明軍充分發揮了立國50年的建設成果,不僅打出了軍威,更打出了明軍雄厚的經濟實力以及驚人的戰爭相持能力。明軍用步步為營的方式,集中優勢兵力打了一場漂亮的殲滅戰,而火器與騎兵相結合的打法不僅成為了蒙古騎兵的噩夢,也對后來明軍的戰術思想產生了深遠的影響,這是明軍的進攻精神發揮的最為淋漓盡致的一戰,而這也正是永樂皇帝苦心經營的結果。電視劇《亮劍》里有句話說的好:一個統帥的氣質也決定著一支軍隊的氣質,一個統帥的靈魂也將成為一支軍隊的軍魂。明軍這個時期的表現正是這句話生動的寫照,馬上皇帝永樂的進攻精神也滲透到他每個士兵的血液中,這是一支在當時世界堪稱最強的軍隊,貼木兒東侵明朝路上病故,與其說是明朝的幸運,不如說是他自己的幸運,與這樣的一支軍隊交手,赫赫威名的帖木兒大帝恐怕一生的英明都要付之東流水了。遺憾的是,明軍的進攻精神僅僅是在洪武和永樂兩朝曇花一現,后世皇帝以防御為主的戰略思想,大大限制了明軍進攻戰術的改良,也扼殺了明軍的進攻精神。宋朝進攻乏力是因為騎兵缺乏,但是明朝并不缺馬,產馬的甘肅和陜西西部地區都在明朝手中,內蒙地區的蒙古部落也多是臣服明朝的,明朝缺少的就是有頭腦的戰略家和有進取精神的統治者。而永樂皇帝卻犯了欲速則不達的毛病,整個永樂朝,頻繁的北伐雖然收獲不小,但是也虛耗了國力,并也使后繼者因噎廢食。而北部防御體系建設上的短視,導致北方關外衛所日益被孤立,明成祖雖然堪稱是明朝大有為的君主,但是在戰略建設上卻遠遜色于他的老爹朱元璋,五次北征帶來的邊境安寧不過十數年,衛所建設上的嚴重錯誤,卻貽害了后世幾代。
  
  4、明正統14年,瓦刺大軍在土木堡將明軍打得全軍覆沒,并俘虜明英宗,名將于謙指揮北京保衛戰,大破也先大軍,迫使其交還英宗。蒙古軍的兵敗引起了一系列連鎖反應,也先在內訌中被殺,分散的蒙古部落又重新接受了明朝的冊封。

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