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號稱“亞洲第一”的北洋水師,為一戰就被日本聯合艦隊打回了原型

類別:歷史戰爭 | 來自:未知 | 發布時間:2018-05-01 | 人氣值:

在晚清時期,有一支滿清的希望,那就是北洋水師。這是是晚清時期由洋務派花重金打造的一支新式艦隊。北洋水師由李鴻章親自督辦,是李鴻章一生的心血,也是大清最著名的一支近代化海軍艦隊,大清每年投入巨資建設海軍。建設也初見成效,到1888年北洋水師正式成立之時,主力艦艇25艘,輔助艦艇50艘,其中還有鎮遠,定遠這樣的萬噸級戰艦。北洋艦隊總投資超過3000萬兩白銀,1888年成軍時,擁有主力艦25艘。但是甲午一戰是中國永遠的恥辱。

號稱“亞洲第一”的北洋水師,為一戰就被日本聯合艦隊打回了原型

那么為什么號稱“亞洲第一,世界第七”的北洋水師會被日本聯合艦隊打的落花流水呢?

首先,北洋海軍的建成時間較早,早在1888年就已經成型,但是北洋水師成軍后十數年間,幾乎就沒有添置什么像樣的軍艦,一直裹足不前吃老本。由于黨爭等原因,朝廷給北洋海軍的撥款遲遲不到位,而且還有被挪用的現象,慈禧修頤和園挪走600萬,過生日挪走600萬。而北洋海軍每年到手的經費實在是少的可憐。巧婦難為無米之炊,也難為李鴻章維持這樣一支龐大的艦隊。

號稱“亞洲第一”的北洋水師,為一戰就被日本聯合艦隊打回了原型

日本方面則是截然相反的情況,在中日長崎事件之后,日本全民瘋狂捐錢、瘋狂造船購艦,就連日本天皇都是一天只吃一頓飯,皇妃連首飾和嫁妝都賣了。在日本人瘋狂的購艦之下,日本軍艦越買越多、越買越好,不僅數量多而且性能先進。北洋水師的老古董根本打不過了,也就是說在開戰前北洋艦隊已經全面落后于日本聯合艦隊,日本聯合艦隊對北洋艦隊的優勢鮮明。

號稱“亞洲第一”的北洋水師,為一戰就被日本聯合艦隊打回了原型

其次是日本人預謀已久,先發制人,打了清朝一個措手不及。大東溝海戰,日本幾乎是傾巢出動,而北洋艦隊開始時參戰的只有數艘戰艦。清朝前期準備不足,倉促應戰。北洋艦隊只去了一部分,南洋水師和福建水師更是按兵不動。大東溝海戰后,北洋艦隊躲進威海衛再也不出來了,結果被日本奪了要塞,拿要塞的克虜伯巨炮把戰艦都給轟沉了。

號稱“亞洲第一”的北洋水師,為一戰就被日本聯合艦隊打回了原型

最后也是最重要的原因,除了武器裝備不如日本。北洋水師的官兵戰斗力也是比較底下的。軍隊內貪污腐化嚴重,克扣軍餉,吃空餉的現象比比皆是,就連武器裝備他們都敢倒來賣。1894年大閱海軍時,定、鎮兩艘鐵甲艦主炮的戰時用彈僅存三枚。

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