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袁崇煥之死:死的最冤的大將

類別:名人故事 | 來自:網絡整理 | 發布時間:2015-02-17 | 人氣值:

袁崇煥之死:死的最冤的大將

  在中國的歷史上由幾位大將死的特別的冤。如西漢的韓信,漢家天下十之八九都是他打下的,但最后卻落了個被縊死的悲慘結局。再如南宋的岳飛,率領岳家軍英勇抗金,保衛大宋,最后卻以“莫須有”的罪名,冤死風波亭。但是,死的最冤的還要數明末大將袁崇煥。

  

  袁崇煥(1584--1630) 字元素,號自如,是明朝崇禎年間的一員猛將。袁崇煥為廣西藤縣人,生于明萬歷十二年(公元1584年),萬歷四十七年中進士,初為福建邵武知縣,開始步入仕途。袁崇煥自幼胸懷大志,最關注的是當時并不為當權者重視的遼東邊事,那時努爾哈赤率領的后金力量已經開始崛起,數次率領八旗勁旅攻擊明朝,成為明王朝在北方邊境的心腹大患。但是,此時的明朝,上到皇帝,下到群臣整天生活在花天酒地之中,要么醉生夢死不問時事,要么勾心斗角,黨爭不斷。弄得滿朝上下烏煙瘴氣、一片混亂。袁崇煥雖然是一介寒士,卻從小關注邊疆戰事,他熟讀兵書,精于布陣之道,希望將來能在邊疆為國盡忠效力。當了邵武知縣后,袁崇煥還經常地在日常政務之余,找來曾經在遼東邊鎮當過兵的退伍老兵了解一些遼東邊境的具體情況。他雖然38歲之前,沒有到過遼東,卻對邊地的地勢、戰事、人事卻了如指掌。為他日后在遼東的作為打下了堅實的基礎。

  

  明天啟二年,袁崇煥進京朝見皇帝,向朝廷提出了許多靖邊之策,受到皇帝的賞識,破格提升他為兵部侍郎,負責掌管策應遼東的防務。為了進一步了解勞動邊境的實際情況,袁崇煥曾冒著被后金軍隊俘虜的危險,單槍匹馬在山海關外考察了十幾天。經過這十幾天的考察,袁崇煥更加加深了對遼東防務的了解。并胸有成竹的對其他官員說只要給他足夠的兵馬糧草,他就可以固守關外。后來,遼東邊事告急,袁崇煥自告奮勇要前往遼東前線。后袁崇煥被任命為兵部僉事,專門負責關外的軍事活動,從此,袁崇煥開始了他的軍事生涯。身負重任的袁崇煥來到山海關以后,馬上到各個城口實地考察。尋找防務上的漏洞,按照實地調查的結果重新布置防務。要守住山海關,就必須固守關外的寧遠新城。寧遠同山海關相互依托缺一不可。所以,他上任之后,就集中全部人力物力,修筑寧遠城。在他的精心修筑下,寧遠成為山海關外的最堅固的一座軍事重鎮。

  

  袁崇煥看到現存的助手部隊由于長年征戰,大都變得老弱病殘,為了加強軍隊的戰斗力,袁崇煥著手招募了一支新的軍隊進行嚴格的訓練,對原駐守軍隊也進行大力整頓,殺了幾個虛報兵額的軍官,拒止了軍隊中綱紀敗壞的勢頭。通過幾年的整頓和布署,寧遠城成為關外第一個人口繁密的軍事重鎮,關外受亂所害四處流離的百姓都聚集到寧遠城尋求庇護,往來的商賈也絡繹不絕,到處都呈現出一派新氣象。此外,袁崇煥還先后收復了寧遠外圍的錦州、松山、右屯等地,修建軍事防御,派軍兵駐守,使之同寧遠城互為犄角,大大加強了防守的堅固性。使明軍的北部防線從邊境向北推移了兩百多里,加大了戰場的縱深度。袁崇煥督師遼東之后,后金軍隊見袁崇煥排兵布陣嚴陣以待,不敢再輕易進犯,邊境較以前大為穩定。

  

  然而明朝內部的傾軋還是如火如荼,當時正是魏忠賢等一伙閹黨興風作浪的高潮時期,他們見邊地情況逐漸安定下來,又開始了排斥異已的活動,在魏忠賢的主持下,原來主持山海關內外軍務的大學士孫承宗被罷職,改派了閹黨之中的骨干人物高第來接替。高第絲毫不懂軍事,一到任上就馬上下令撤回關外所有駐防力量。袁崇煥據理力爭也毫無作用。結果到最后,只有寧遠城在袁崇煥的極力堅持下被保留下來,其他耗盡心血才建立起來的防御城則全部廢棄了,守軍撤走,關外原已安頓下來的百姓再一次留離失所。后金見明朝軍隊主動后撤,馬上組織軍隊南犯。袁崇煥向駐守山海關的高第請援,高第卻毫不理睬,等著看袁崇煥的好戲。袁崇煥沒辦法,只好動員寧遠城中一切力量固守城防,在城外實行堅壁清野政策,還寫下血書,激勵將士和他一起與寧遠共存亡。

  

  1626 年正月,努爾哈赤親率八旗勁旅進攻寧遠。袁崇煥率領守軍據城死戰,戰士們個個奮勇上前,百姓們也紛紛上城頭幫忙,守軍使用紅衣大炮猛烈轟擊八旗軍,使得善于騎射、長于野戰的八旗勁旅被阻于城垣之外,攻城不得。數輪攻擊后,兵將傷亡十分慘重,許多兵將死于明軍炮火之下,連八旗統帥努爾哈赤本人也被紅衣大炮擊傷。努爾哈赤自以十三副鎧甲含恨起兵以來,戎馬生涯四十四載,大戰小戰無數,總是戰無不勝,攻無不克。從未遭受過如此之敗。

  

  在寧遠之戰中袁崇煥統領的軍隊雖然取勝,但是由于孤軍奮戰,也是元氣大傷。為了爭取軍隊的休整時間,也為了試探后金的意圖,袁崇煥私下派出使節去吊唁努爾哈赤,還向努爾哈赤說“老將橫行天下久矣,今日見敗于小子,豈其數耶!”努爾哈赤深受重傷,又經袁崇煥所派的使者這么一氣,很快便郁悶而死,終年 68 歲。努爾哈赤死后被葬于沈陽盛京郊外的福陵,清朝建立后他被追謚為“承天廣運圣德神功肇紀立極仁孝睿武端毅欽安弘文定業高皇帝”,廟號太祖。這本來只是袁崇煥的緩兵之計,但是由于他沒有事先向朝廷報告,結果為日后埋下了禍患,也給后金實行反間計以可乘之機。

  

  天啟七年,熹宗皇帝病死,他的弟弟朱由檢登基作了皇帝,即崇禎皇帝。朱由檢登基之后,十分的重視遼東的戰事。為了實現收復遼東的夢想,他重用這時被閹黨壓抑罷官在家的袁崇煥,授以兵部尚書的重任,督師薊遼。袁崇煥上任之后的第一件事就是要整頓軍紀,在整頓的過程中,他發現皮島守將毛文龍竟敢私自販運軍糧,簡直是木屋軍紀,為了嚴肅軍紀。袁崇煥未經朝廷批準,就擅自殺掉了毛文龍。這次袁崇煥擅殺朝廷大將仍是惹怒了崇禎皇帝,崇禎本想處置袁崇煥但是由于遼東防務無人可派,只好先隱忍不發。

  

  崇禎二年(公元1629年)。后金新繼位的皇太極率領大軍,躲開袁崇煥的防區,從龍井關、大安口一帶攻破長城守衛,進犯北京城。袁崇煥得到京師危急的消息后,馬上帶兵千里飛馳回京支援。。由于晝夜奔馳,關寧鐵騎的步兵被遠遠丟在后面,甚至最精銳的九千騎兵中也有四千人掉了隊,只剩下五千和他一起趕到了北京。袁崇煥到達北京城外之后馬上與山海關總兵滿桂合力在北京城外各門狙擊后金軍。在堅持了一段時間后,明朝各地勤王軍馬日益逼近北京,形勢漸漸逆轉,開始有利于明軍。袁崇煥是后金得一個心腹大患,為了除掉他,皇太極采用了范文程的計策,離間崇禎和袁崇煥。他們偽造了袁崇煥與皇太極書信,并讓人冒充袁崇煥的使者,向皇太極邀功,還故意讓俘獲的太監聽見,然后故意放回這個太監。崇禎本來就已經對袁崇煥產生懷疑,此時在經太監這么一說,更是對袁崇煥是漢奸深信不疑。同時,后進的軍隊在作戰的時候,也用了計策。他們用袁崇煥部下用過的箭矢射傷滿桂。滿桂回城后軍醫為他拔出身上所中箭矢,發現上面刻有袁崇煥所部之記號。滿桂原本也與袁崇煥有點過節,如今發現袁崇煥竟然在聯手對付外敵的時候暗算自己,因此勃然大怒,便以箭矢和身上傷口為證,進宮找崇禎告了御狀。兩下里一對,崇禎帝果然中了計。認為是袁崇煥與后金勾結,引兵入關的。于是馬上將袁崇煥逮捕下獄。袁崇煥的部下一聽主帥居然被皇帝抓了起來,馬上發生嘩變,祖大壽等大將甚至決定帶兵返回山海關,不再理會京師被圍的緊急狀況。崇禎皇帝這下急了,馬上命令獄中袁崇煥寫信給部下,要求他們回師抵抗后金軍了。袁崇煥就遵從皇帝的旨意寫了封信給自己的部下,要求他們以國家利益為重回軍援師。祖大壽等將領果然懷著對袁崇煥的敬慕之心,回軍迎戰,擊退了后進的軍隊。在城外激戰的這幾個月里,崇禎皇帝不敢動獄中的袁崇煥,害怕引起兵變,可是心里恨袁崇煥入骨。等后金軍隊剛一退去,他就以“通敵叛國”的大罪判袁崇煥凌遲處死。

  

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